Thompson — Frank B.
This time of upheaval and social and political unrest called all institutions into question, so George Fox and his leading disciples— James NaylerRichard HubberthorneMargaret Fellas well as numerous others—targeted "scattered Baptists ", disillusioned soldiers, and restless common folk as potential Quakers.
Confrontations with the established churches and its leaders and those who held power at the local level assured those who spoke for the new sect a ready hearing as they insisted that God could speak to average people, through his risen son, without the need to heed churchmenpay tithesor engage in deceitful practices.
They found fertile ground in northern England in andbuilding a base there from which they moved south, first to London and then beyond. In the early days the groups remained scattered, but gradually they consolidated in the north—the first meeting being created in Durham in —to provide financial support to the missionaries who had gone south and presently abroad.
Before long they seemed a potential threat to the dignity of the Cromwellian state. Even arresting its leaders failed to slow the movement, instead giving them a new audience in the courts of the nation. While this was apparently an attempt to emphasize that the "Light of Christ" was in every person, most observers believed that he and his followers believed Nayler to be Jesus Christ.
The participants were arrested by the authorities and handed over to Parliamentwhere they were tried. Parliament was sufficiently incensed by Nayler's heterodox views that they punished him savagely and sent him back to Bristol to jail indefinitely. Many historians see this event as a turning point in early Quaker history because many other leaders, especially Fox, made efforts to increase the authority of the group, so as to prevent similar behaviour.
This effort culminated in with the "Testimony from the Brethren", aimed at those who, in its own words, despised a rule "without which we Fox also established women's meetings for discipline and gave them an important role in overseeing marriageswhich served both to isolate the opposition and fuel discontent with the new departures.
In the s and s Fox himself travelled the country setting up a more formal structure of monthly local and quarterly regional meetings, a structure that is still used today.
First, John Perrot, previously a respected minister and missionary, raised questions about whether men should uncover their heads when another Friend prayed in meeting.
He also opposed a fixed schedule for meetings for worship. Soon this minor question broadened into an attack on the power of those at the centre. Later, during the s, William Rogers of Bristol and a group from Lancashirewhose spokesmen John Story and John Wilkinson were both respected leaders, led a schism.
They disagreed with the heightening influence of women and centralizing authority among Friends closer to London. Ina group of about a dozen leaders, led by Richard Farnworth Fox was absent, being in prison in Scarboroughgathered in London and issued a document that they styled "A Testimony of the Brethren".
It set rules to maintain the good order that they wanted to see among adherents and excluded separatists from holding office and prohibited them from travelling lest they sow errors. Looking to the future, they announced that authority in the Society rested with them.
Women and equality[ edit ] One of their most radical innovations was a more nearly equal role for women, as Taylor shows. Despite the survival of strong patriarchal elements, Friends believed in the spiritual equality of women, who were allowed to take a far more active role than had ordinarily existed before the emergence of radical civil war sects.
Women's meetings were organized as a means to involve women in more modest, feminine pursuits. Writers such as Dorcas Dole and Elizabeth Stirredge turned to subjects seen as more feminine in that period.
The Quakers continued to meet openly, even in the dangerous year of Heavy fines were exacted and, as in earlier years, women were treated as severely as men by the authorities.
Over and over he was thrown in prison during the s through the s. Other Quakers followed him to prison as well. The charge was causing a disturbance; at other times it was blasphemy.Frederick W. Taylor: The Principles of Scientific Management, are born, not made"; and the theory has been that if one could get the right man, methods could be safely left to him.
In the future it will be, appreciated that our leaders must be trained right as.
Formulated two assumptions about workers, Theory X (employees naturally dislike work and responsibility, and must be controlled) and Theory Y (employees seek responsibility, and will be self-directed and committed if the job is satisfying). Instrumentality theory has its roots in the work of Taylor (), with emphasis on the need to rationalize work and economic outcomes.
Many organizations in Nigeria, the civil service inclusive, still adopt this approach Motivation and Job Satisfaction in the Nigerian Public Service: Issues, Problems and Challenges.
04Apr12 - Inaugural Bilderberg meeting held in Nazis Oosterbeek Hexenkessel ten years after Arnhem slaughter. As we have already heard, TWO chairmen - former SS officer Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and Lord Peter Carrington were both heavily involved in the Nijmegen/Arnhem Operation Market Garden debacle of September (see below).
The Religious Society of Friends began as a movement in England in the midth century in Lancashire.
Members are informally known as Quakers, as they were said "to tremble in the way of the Lord".The movement in its early days faced strong opposition and persecution, but it continued to expand across the British Isles and then in the Americas and Africa.
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