Biology 101 notes

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Biology 101 notes

Definition[ edit ] The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the discipline remains: Theory and practice of grouping individuals into species, arranging species into larger groups, and giving those groups names, thus producing a classification.

There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy definitions 1 and 2or a part of systematics outside taxonomy. A whole set of terms including taxonomy, systematic biologysystematics, biosystematicsscientific classification, biological classification, and phylogenetics have at times had overlapping meanings — sometimes the same, sometimes slightly different, but always related and intersecting.

This analysis may be executed on the basis of any combination of the various available kinds of characters, such as morphological, anatomical, palynological, biochemical and genetic.

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A monograph or complete revision is a revision that is comprehensive for a taxon for the information given at a particular time, and for the entire world.

Other partial revisions may be restricted in the sense that they may only use some of the available character sets or have a limited spatial scope. A revision results in a conformation of or new insights in the relationships between the subtaxa within the taxon under study, which may result in a change in the classification of these subtaxa, the identification of new subtaxa, or the merger of previous subtaxa.

The term "alpha taxonomy" is primarily used today to refer to the discipline of finding, describing, and naming taxaparticularly species. Ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a great value of acting as permanent stimulants, and if we have some, even vague, ideal of an "omega" taxonomy we may progress a little way down the Greek alphabet.

Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a "beta" taxonomy. He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy pp. Later authors have used the term in a different sense, to mean the delimitation of species not subspecies or taxa of other ranksusing whatever investigative techniques are available, and including sophisticated computational or laboratory techniques.

This activity is what the term classification denotes; it is also referred to as beta taxonomy. Microtaxonomy and macrotaxonomy[ edit ] Main article: Species problem How species should be defined in a particular group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem.

The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy. Earlier works were primarily descriptive and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in this scientific thinking.

Early taxonomy was based on arbitrary criteria, the so-called "artificial systems", including Linnaeus's system of sexual classification.

Later came systems based on a more complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as "natural systems", such as those of de Jussieude Candolle and Bentham and Hooker — These were pre- evolutionary in thinking.

The publication of Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships. This was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler — The advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of "phylogenetic systems" based on cladisticsrather than morphology alone.

It would always have been important to know the names of poisonous and edible plants and animals in order to communicate this information to other members of the family or group.

Medicinal plant illustrations show up in Egyptian wall paintings from c. Again, several plant groups currently still recognized can be traced back to Theophrastus, such as CornusCrocusand Narcissus.

This included concepts such as the Great chain of being in the Western scholastic tradition, [26] again deriving ultimately from Aristotle. Aristotelian system did not classify plants or fungi, due to the lack of microscope at the time, [25] as his ideas were based on arranging the complete world in a single continuum, as per the scala naturae the Natural Ladder.

Medieval thinkers used abstract philosophical and logical categorizations more suited to abstract philosophy than to pragmatic taxonomy. This is sometimes credited to the development of sophisticated optical lenses, which allowed the morphology of organisms to be studied in much greater detail.

One of the earliest authors to take advantage of this leap in technology was the Italian physician Andrea Cesalpino —who has been called "the first taxonomist". At the time, his classifications were perhaps the most complex yet produced by any taxonomist, as he based his taxa on many combined characters.

The next major taxonomic works were produced by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort France, — With his major works Systema Naturae 1st Edition in[34] Species Plantarum in[35] and Systema Naturae 10th Edition[36] he revolutionized modern taxonomy.The relationship between biology and sexual orientation is a subject of research.

While scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, they theorize that a combination of genetic, hormonal, and social factors determine it. Hypotheses for the impact of the post-natal social environment on sexual orientation, however, are weak, especially for males.

Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

Biology 101 notes

Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank. The Biology Department offers three degrees, a Bachelor of Science in Biology, ; a Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Science, and ; a Bachelor of Science in Ecology.; The Biology degree offers excellent preparation for many different careers, including most of the health careers such as medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, optometry, nursing, and physical therapy.

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Biology 101 notes

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