AP Biology - Investigation: Photosynthesis Background and PreLab Photosynthesis fuels ecosystems and replenishes the Earth's atmosphere with oxygen. Like all enzyme-driven reactions, the rate of photosynthesis can be measured by either the disappearance of substrate, or the accumulation of products. The equation for photosynthesis is:
How does diffusion across the cell membrane work? What molecules pass through the cell membrane easier than others? Is there any influence of solute concentration to the net movement of water molecules across the cell membrane?
What is the effect of water potential on the cell membrane? Cell membranes act as a barrier for the cell. It keeps together enzymes, DNA, and pathways for metabolic reactions.
Cell membranes dispose of waste products from the cell and lets important molecules, like water and oxygen, into the Ap bio backgrouund. The membrane is semipermeable, meaning only specific molecule may enter the cell. The passing of molecules is either through active transport passage of materials using energy or passive transport passage of materials using kinetic energy.
Molecules are in constant, random motion Brownian motion and if they collide with the membrane, they will rebound.
If the molecules are headed toward an open pore in the cell membrane, it may pass through the pore or rebound depending on its size to the pore.
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The passage of molecules across the cell membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration is call diffusion. The diffusion of water molecules across the cell membrane is called osmosis.
Water is isotonic and moves freely across the cell membrane and helps maintain its fluid mosaic model characteristic. Hypertonic solutions are solutions with higher amounts of solutes and hypotonic solutions are solutions with a lower amount of solutes.
The movement of water across the cell membrane depends on the concentration of solutes on both sides of the cell membrane. When water moves out of the cell, the cell will shrink, and when water moves into the cell, the cell will swell and possibly burst.
Cell walls are present in plant cells which prevent the cell from bursting once it swells. When water enters the plant cell, the membrane is pressed up against the cell wall and creates turgor pressure.
Water potential is used to sum up the differences in solute concentration and pressure to predict the direction water will diffuse in living plant tissues. Water potential is measured in bars, metric units of pressure equal to 10 newtons per cm2 or 1 atmosphere.
The formula for water potential is: Pure water has a water potential of 1 atmosphere. Dissolving substances in water will result the water potential dropping below zero. When solute concentration increases, water potential decreases. Pressure potential may be positive, negative, or zero.
Even though water is diffused in all directions, water will always diffuse from an area of high water potential to and area of low water potential.alignment to the ap biology curriculum framework This investigation can be conducted during the study of concepts pertaining to cellular processes (big idea 2) or interactions (big idea 4).
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AP® BIOLOGY Course and Exam Description Revised edition success — including the SAT® and the Advanced Placement Program®.
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Glenn Howerton and Patton Oswalt star in A.P. Bio, a comedy about how not to teach high school biology, also starring Lyric Lewis, Mary Sohn and more. AP Biology. Enzyme Activity Lab.
Essential Question: Background.
Enzymes are the catalysts of biological systems. Theyspeed up chemical reactions in biological systems by lowering the activation energy, the energy needed for molecules to begin reacting with each other.
AP Biology investigation on photosynthesis includes background information and instructions for using spinach leaf disks, light, and baking soda to measure the rate of photosynthesis. Specific instructions are included for measuring the rate of photosynthesis in relation to light and carbon availability.