Members of the upper class may also have a recognizable family name, such as Rockefeller, DuPont, or Kennedy. Some members of the upper class work, but their salaries are not their primary sources of income. Most members of this strata have attended college, most likely at some of the most prestigious educational institutions in the country. The Kennedy family is a prime example of an upper-class family.
Elizabethan Fashion for Women Those who possess or have access to scarce resources tend to form the higher social class. In every society this elite has more power, authority, prestige, and privileges than those in the lower echelons. Therefore, society's values and rules are usually dictated by the upper classes.
Social Class Theories Philosopher and economist Karl Marx argued that class membership is defined by one's relationship to the means of production.
According to Marx, society can be divided into two main groups: These groups are in a perpetual, antagonistic relationship with one another, attempting either to keep up or reverse the status quo.
Sociologist Max Weber extended Marx's ideas by contending that social class refers to a group of people who occupy similar positions of power, prestige, and privileges and share a life style that is a result of their economic rank in society.
Social class theories are problematic for a number of reasons. They often conceptualize all classes as homogenous entities and do not adequately account for the disparities among different strata within a particular social class.
These theories also tend to gloss over geographic variants of class manifestations, such as urban and rural areas.
A host of other factors, such as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, nationality, and even age or sexuality, further complicate the theories. Social Class in the Twenty-First Century In the twenty-first century, assessing one's social class is no longer a straightforward task because categories have become blurred and the boundaries are no longer well defined or fixed.
Since, in global capitalism, inter-and intra-class mobility is not only socially acceptable but encouraged, people do not develop a singular class-consciousness or distinct class culture. Instead, they make an effort to achieve self-representation and vie for the acceptance of their chosen peer group.
The progress of technology has also helped provide access to comparable and often identical status symbols to people of different class backgrounds across the globe. At the same time, however, as sociologist Pierre Bourdieu argues in his treatise Distinctionthe dominant social classes tend to possess not only wealth but "cultural capital" as well.
In matters of dress, this capital manifests itself in the possession of refined taste and sensibilities that are passed down from generation to generation or are acquired in educational establishments.
Conspicuous Leisure, Consumption and Waste According to economist and social commentator Thorstein Veblen, the drive for social mobility moves fashion.
In his seminal work, The Theory of the Leisure ClassVeblen claims that the wealthy class exercised fashion leadership through sartorial display of conspicuous leisure, consumption, and waste.
The dress of people in this group indicated that they did not carry out strenuous manual work, that they had enough disposable income to spend on an extensive wardrobe, and that they were able to wear a garment only a few times before deeming it obsolete.
Trickle-Down, Bubble-Up and Trickle-Across Theories Although sociologist Georg Simmel is not the sole author of the "trickle-down" theory, the general public still attributes it to him.
In his article, FashionSimmel argued that upper-class members of society introduce fashion changes. The middle and lower classes express their changing relationship to the upper classes and their social claims by imitating the styles set by the upper classes.
However, as soon as they complete this emulation, the elite changes its style to reinforce social hierarchy. But as Michael Carter's research in Fashion Classics demonstrates, imitation and differentiation does not occur necessarily one after the other in a neat fashion.
Instead, there is an ongoing, dynamic interaction between the two. Besides, within each class as well as among the different classes, there is an internal drive to express and assert one's unique individuality.Sociology Exam 2.
PLAY. The analysis of how the "definition of the situation" can mold the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the - functionalist perspective. closed stratification system. egalitarian class system. fractured class system. For example, the sumptuary laws in Europe in the Middle Ages emerged as a way to monitor and maintain social hierarchy and order through clothes.
People's visual representation was prescriptive, standardized, and regulated to the minutest detail. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Feb 05, · Max Weber, like Karl Marx, begins his analysis of class and social stratification from an economic point of view, arguing that 'property and lack of property are the basic categories of all class Author: אני.
On Culture Vultures and Class Warriors: Marketing and Class Reproduction Having developed the bare bones of Bourdieu's perspective, the remainder of the paper will focus on specific applications of the theory to consumer behavior.
Keywords: what is fashion essay, fashion essay. What is Fashion? For centuries individuals or societies have used clothes and other body adornment as a form of nonverbal communication to indicate occupation, rank, gender, sexual availability, locality, class, wealth and group affiliation.
Class Stratification. The Edwardians were experts in.