Leo, however, was not a theological trailblazer. While he was a political official who propagated iconoclasm throughout the empire, he was not the formulator of iconoclastic ideology. To identify the sources of the iconoclastic outbreak, we must look a little deeper.
A westward expansion from the civilizations of western Asia and Egypt began about bc and led to settlements in Crete, the Cyclades, and mainland Greece.
The fundamental difference between these and the earlier, Neolithic cultures is that stone tools and weapons were replaced by those made of copper and, later, bronze. The Chalcolithic Copper-Stone Age, lasting in the Aegean area from the early 3rd millennium bc to the beginning of the 2nd, is usually considered a part of the greater Bronze Agewhich was superseded by the Iron Age from about bc.
The hallmark of the Aegean civilizations was the facility with which Asiatic motifs and techniques were adapted to form original local styles. In architecture, by far the most important achievements were those of the civilizations of Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece.
The immensely important Palace of Minos at Knossosexcavated and reconstructed early in the 20th century by Sir Arthur Evansoffers evidence of unbroken architectural and artistic development from Neolithic beginnings, culminating in a brilliant display of building activity during the third phase of the Middle Minoan period — bc and continuing until the invasion of the Achaean s in the 12th century.
The palace, however, is essentially a structure of the late two Middle Minoan periods — bc.
It no doubt rivaled Middle Eastern and Egyptian palaces in monumentality. At the northern end, toward the sea, a grand portico of 12 pilasters would have given access to the central court.
At this end, also, is situated the grand theatrical area, a rectangular open-air theatre that was perhaps used for ritual performances. The east wing of the palace is divided into two parts by a long corridor running on an east—west axis; originally it rose four or five stories above the slope of the valley.
The southeast portion of the palace contains domestic apartments, elaborately supplied with plumbing and flushing facilities, as well as a sanctuary. A wide stairway led to an upper story, which no longer exists. The northeast portion of the palace is occupied by offices and storerooms.
The west portion is again divided by a main corridor, more than feet 60 metres long, running north and south. Behind this corridor, along the western side, was discovered a series of long narrow storerooms containing great numbers of pithoi, or human-size storage vessels for oil.
On the other side of the corridor, facing toward the central court, are the rooms of state, including the throne room with its unique gypsum throne and world-famous griffin frescoes. Brilliantly hued frescoes played an important part in both the interior and the exterior decoration of the palace. Light was supplied from above by an ingenious system of light wells, and several colonnaded porticoes provided ventilation during the hot Cretan summers.
Each is notable, and Phaestus is particularly fascinating, due to extensive Italian excavations. Maritime hegemony enabled the Cretan sea kings to build these palaces in low and unprotected places; consequently there is a conspicuous absence of fortification walls, as contrasted to the great walls of Mesopotamian palaces.
Since Cretan worship seems to have been conducted largely in the open air, there are no real temples as in the Middle East.Later, the iconoclast Leo V took the throne, however, he lacked support from the other emperors, and the Church Council of AD decreed that iconoclasts were to be excommunicated The controversy of icon veneration was linked to Christology.
A "BRIEF" HISTORY OF ICONOCLASM. In the Eastern emperor, Leo III, first attempted to remedy the abuse in his dominion by ordering that the images and pictures be placed so high that the worshippers could not kiss them.
A History of the Iconoclastic Controversy by Edward James Martin (NY: The Macmillan Co, , orig ) History. Feb 05, · The imperial leader of the initial iconoclastic outbreak was the Roman (Byzantine) Emperor, Leo III, who put forth a series of official decrees in opposition to icons.
Officially, it was in the year that “Leo III introduced iconoclasm” (Andrew Louth, Greek East and Latin West, p.
82). Leo, however, was not a theological trailblazer. . Western architecture - The Iconoclastic Age (–) - A common theme in the history of Byzantium of this period is the attempt to ban the veneration of icons (the representation of .
Feb 05, · The imperial leader of the initial iconoclastic outbreak was the Roman (Byzantine) Emperor, Leo III, who put forth a series of official decrees in opposition to icons.
Officially, it was in the year that “Leo III introduced iconoclasm” (Andrew Louth, Greek East and Latin West, p. 82). Leo, however, was not a theological .
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